Solar flares are sudden and dramatic releases of energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of radiation and electrically charged particles. It was first observed on the Sun by Richard Christopher in 1859. Flare is defined as a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness. They can affect all layers of the solar atmosphere and it emits x-ray and UV rays into earth atmosphere. These eruptions are associated with many aspects of space weather, which can damage satellites and interfere with communications, navigation’s and power systems. Bloomfield and his colleagues compared seven different systems for predicting solar flares: two of these used images showing the structure of sunspots and other five used a variety of parameters relating to the magnetic field, maximum field strength, total flux and strengths of gradients.

The source data came from a range of ground based and space based by solar telescopes. The previous standard system for rating flare forecasts was very sensitive to the relative activity levels between testing periods.